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You have chosen to share the following article: How elderberries can help you fight the flu To proceed, simply complete the form below, and a link to the article will be sent by email on your behalf. Send securely. Message sent successfully The details of this article have been emailed on your behalf. By Ana Sandoiu. Fact checked by Carolyn Robertson. New research adds another factor that may predict a person's outlook after a breast cancer diagnosis. Breast cancer: Does stress fuel its spread?
New research examines the effect of psychological stress on breast cancer spread. Related coverage. Breast Cancer.
Latest news Atrial fibrillation: Daily alcoholic drink riskier than binge drinking. Breast Cancer Risk Factors Download. A risk factor for cancer is anything that might cause you to be more likely to develop the disease. This brief discusses the major risk factors known or suspected of EDCs are chemicals that interfere with any aspect of hormone function. They are mostly synthetic, present in many products, and widespread in the environment. Some mimic oestrogen and increase breast Parabens Download. Parabens are preservatives found in cosmetics, personal care products, and some processed foods.
They are widespread in the environment. They act as weak oestrogen mimics and may affect breast cancer Top Five Tips Download. Here are our top tips to help women and men reduce their risk of Flame Retardants Download. Certain flame retardants, which are used to prevent fires, are carcinogenic cause cancer or are endocrine disrupting chemicals. This brief discusses flame retardants that may affect breast cancer risk. Air pollution Download.
Air pollution is thought to contribute to over 40, deaths each year in the UK. It has been linked to a range of illnesses, including lung cancer, asthma and Male Breast Cancer Download. Each year around men in the UK get breast cancer. Breast cancer is rare in men as they have less breast tissue and lower lifetime exposure to oestrogen.
Bisphenol A is a synthetic compound used in production of plastics, resins and thermal ink. The increased risks associated with the 3 identified factors are small 1 to 2 —fold compared with the risk of lung cancer associated with smoking fold. Many women in our study have had their Fallopian tubes cut, tied or clipped to prevent future pregnancy.
This is known as sterilisation, or tubal ligation, and has been linked in many studies with a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer. We looked at the risk of different types of ovarian cancer, and found that risk of some types was reduced, and of others unchanged, in women who had been sterilised compared with women who had not Gaitskell, Green et al, Moreover when we looked at risk of 26 other cancers, including breast, womb endometrial and cervix cancers, the only other cancers associated with sterilisation were rare cancers of the Fallopian tube and of the peritoneum the inner lining of the abdominal cavity Gaitskell, Coffey et al, Collaborative studies of the pill, HRT and cancers of the womb and ovary.
Some of our studies involve collaboration with other researchers worldwide, to make the best use of our study data. The most reliable answers to many research questions come from looking at the results from as many different studies as possible, so that all the relevant information is taken into account. Several large international collaborations on risk factors for female cancers breast, ovary, womb endometrium are run by us from Oxford, and we include anonymised Million Women Study data.
Keywords: breast cancer, epidemiology, oestrogen, prevention, risk factors . Studies have also evaluated the relationship between urinary. Keywords: breast cancer, Wnt-1, estrogen receptor α knockout However, the causal relationship between E2 metabolism and breast cancer Our prior studies validated the ability to “clamp” plasma E2 at levels ranging from.
One recent collaborative analysis has confirmed that current HRT use is associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, with similar risks for oestrogen-only and combined oestrogen-progestagen therapy, and risk remaining increased for many years after HRT use stops Beral et al, Pill use is estimated to have prevented , cases of endometrial cancer worldwide over the past 50 years. Cataract clouding of the lens in the eye is very common as people age, and can only be treated with surgery.
As successful, available and relatively minor as this procedure is in the UK, there is interest in possible preventive measures, and not all possible risk factors for cataract formation have been well studied. With linkage to hospital admissions records, we studied potential risk factors for having cataract surgery Floud et al, We confirmed that increasing age and diabetes are the strongest risk factors women with diabetes have 3 times the risk of cataract as women without diabetes ; and found that risk of cataract surgery was also modestly increased in smokers, and in obese women.
There was no link with HRT use something which had been previously suggested. As we approach 20 years since the first women were recruited into the Million Women Study, we continue to use this valuable resource to investigate potentially modifiable risk factors for a range of diseases of middle and old age in women. Recent publications include work on cancers and on cardiovascular disease, in relation to social factors, diet, physical activity and obesity. Ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence in the UK are explained by differences in known risk factors Gathani et al While the great majority of women who joined the Million Women Study are White, the study also includes about 6, women of South Asian ethnicity and 5, Black women.
When we compared the patterns of known risk factors for breast cancer- such as childbearing history, body size, HRT use, alcohol consumption- between ethnic groups, we found that differences in these factors could explain most if not all of the differences in rates of breast cancer. For example, South Asian and Black women were less likely than White women to drink alcohol or to use HRT , and on average had more children and were more likely to breastfeed their children- all factors which are linked to lower risk of breast cancer.
Our results are consistent with those from studies elsewhere in the world, which generally suggest that risk factors for breast cancer act similarly in women from different ethnic groups, and that most differences between ethnic groups in the incidence of breast cancer reflect differences in these risk factors.
Organically produced foods are less likely than conventionally produced foods to contain pesticide residues, and it has been suggested that eating organic foods might lower the risk of some cancers. In one of our first papers using information on diet in the Million Women Study Bradbury , we found no link between eating organic foods and the risk of all major cancers. Over the next 9 years, over 53, women developed cancer and the risk was the same in women who ate organic food and in those who never did. Of the 16 most common types of cancer, including breast cancer, our results suggest a possible reduced risk only for one type, non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
UK women who smoke or are obese are less likely to take up an invitation to bowel cancer screening Blanks et al, It is not possible to do this in such detail using screening data alone. The screening programme in the UK uses a postal Faecal Occult Blood FOB test to pick up blood hidden in the stool, which may come from an undetected cancer or potentially precancerous growth.
Men and women aged are invited to complete the test every 2 years. We know from screening programme records that uptake is lower for people in more deprived socio-economic groups, and higher for older age groups; we confirmed this for the women in our study, and were able to show also that uptake of screening is lower in women who smoke, in obese women and in women in non-White ethnic groups. The same factors were associated with a higher risk of testing positive on the FOB test, and of having a bowel polyp a potentially pre-cancerous growth detected, among women who were screened.
We are looking further at what we can learn by combining our study data with screening records, to help us understand both how best to organise a screening programme, and which factors may affect risk of different types of bowel cancer and pre-cancer. Frequent physical activity may not reduce vascular disease risk as much as moderate activity:.
Similar findings have recently been reported from other studies. Women who are married or living with a partner have the same risk of developing heart disease as unmarried women, but are less likely to die from heart disease. It has been known for some time that married men tend to have lower risk than unmarried men of dying from heart disease, but there is less evidence for women. We compared the risks of developing heart disease incident ischaemic heart disease; heart attack or angina and of dying from heart disease in women in the study who were married or living with a partner, and in those who were not Floud et al, It is not yet clear why there is this difference.
We took other known risk factors for heart disease- such as smoking, body size, and alcohol intake — into account as far as possible but some differences in these factors between married and unmarried women may remain; it has also been suggested that the difference in death from heart disease may reflect social circumstances, for example the presence or absence of another person to raise the alarm, or to encourage a partner to seek early medical help, when someone falls ill. Measuring the impact of overweight and obesity on hospital admissions in women in England Reeves et al Having such a large study with nearly 10 years of follow-up for hospital admissions, we were able to look in more detail than has previously been possible at how obesity and overweight are related to the rate of admission to hospital for many different conditions.
BMB Rep. J Am Coll Nutr. Article activity alert. This effect was reduced after ceasing use of HRT and had largely, if not wholly, disappeared after about 5 years. An alternative approach is to temporarily suppress the ovarian function pharmacologically using gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH agonists.
Overall among 1. The conditions most strongly associated with BMI were diabetes, knee replacement, blood clots and gallbladder disease- but it was interesting to see that admission for many other conditions for which a link with obesity has not been so clearly recognised was also related to BMI - such as carpal tunnel syndrome, diverticulitis, and cataracts.
Compared with women who have no children, those who bear children tend to have a higher body mass index in later life — but women who breastfed their children are leaner than those who did not. The long-term effects of childbearing and of breastfeeding on body mass index a measure of weight, taking height into account in adult life can be seen clearly in the Million Women Study, thanks to the large number of women who provided detailed information on childbearing and breastfeeding, as well as other factors which affect weight Bobrow et al, Women in our study have each had 2 children, on average, and by their late fifties have an average BMI of Compared with this, women who have had 3 children have an average BMI in their fifties of Among women with children, breastfeeding for 6 months was associated with lower average BMI in middle age than in women with the same number of children but who had not breastfed — a difference of about 0.
These differences may seem small, but over a whole population they are important, because risk of many common diseases in middle and old age including heart disease, stroke and cancer is closely related to small differences in BMI. Two recent papers from our study looked at risk factors for heart disease in women.
We have looked at the link between body size body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease heart attack, angina and related disease , again taking advantage of the very large size of the study to allow us to examine risk in more detail than has been possible in smaller studies.