People opposing prohibition among tribal people may try to give opposite statements, slogans, may make several propagandas and may spread rumour and thereby try to create conflict when the public opinion has not been fully formed and is still in a fluid state and only in the process of formation. Thus, in the third stage, both rational and irrational considerations enter into the opinion formation in democratic societies.
In the fourth and final stage of opinion formation from all the speeches, slogans, conversations and discussions, the majority of the members reach at a final decision regarding a particular issue. Thus, a conclusion is derived from a comparative analysis of opinions so expressed.
This becomes the public opinion. For instance, after lots of deliberations they finally reached at the decision that prohibition is essential for the upliftment of tribal people and active efforts are to be made to make prohibition effective. This may not be the opinion of all, but if it is the opinion of the majority or most people, it becomes the public opinion as democracy chiefly operates by majority votes. In public opinion, there is difference of opinion, there is controversy but finally the view of the majority emerges as public opinion.
The quality and effectiveness of a public opinion depends upon how effectively the public has been involved in the discussion. The various mass and electronic medias, group discussions and public meetings also necessarily determine the quality of public opinion.
Public opinion is formed through a dynamic and gradual process. It is not formed overnight or instantly. Factors like basic needs, prejudices, motivations, propaganda through various means and role of the leader influence public opinion. They are discussed here briefly:.
Deep rooted basic needs determine to a great extent public opinion. Particularly when it is found that public opinions are not entirely based on rational facts, the role of emotional and sentimental needs play an upper hand. That is why, for formation of a new public opinion references are made to fundamentalism, communalism, national integration, stability, traditional and religious values, conscience and morality, honesty, truthfulness etc.
In a society where women are tortured and misbehaved, public opinion may be formed against the persons who are involved in this. In the formation of public opinion socio-cultural conditioning plays a role when people without finding any reason, accept a particular opinion or issue because of the social norms and values. Early socialisation process which plays a role in the formation of attitude, stereotype, beliefs and prejudices always determine public opinion.
Certain basic issues and opinions of a particular society are more often than not based on values and traditions of the society passed through cultural conditioning.
As democracy spreads, more individuals are likely to enjoy greater economic benefits. Deleted User talk contribs. In fact, they are using all the available means to increase the presence in peripheral areas, build an accountable image of themselves, and have the support of parallel institutions with a different functioning than the traditional ones like the International Monetary Fund IMF. Indeed, corruption is identified as a major cause of government instability, economic underperformance and social inequality. Note 8: Philippe C. Here, in addition to the ongoing inability to cope with economic problems, other important issues have emerged, such as the way in which the issue of migrants and populist drifts are addressed, which highlight even more the divisions among political visions. Gps systems and martin kenney focus the two peer health care essay.
The public opinion towards females, towards scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other disadvantaged people in the society arc determined by socio-cultural conditioning. The role of prejudice in the determination of public opinion is also equally important. The role of a leader is crucial in determining public opinion and giving it definition and final shape just as it happens in a group or a crowd. The leader of the group is the centre around which the different ends of the discussion crystallize to a single unified point.
The leader not only gives direction and stability to the public opinion it also helps in eliminating the opposite forces who stand on the way of formation of a particular public opinion. The leader makes an assessment on the general mood of people, before mobilizing public opinion in a particular direction. The leader may not be able to create a situation for public opinion, but he can take advantage of the existing situation and manipulate it to his advantage or to the advantage of people. When the person is in need of something and desires to fulfil such needs there is an inner desire or drive to form some public opinion.
The fulfil the motive, people become more active and goal oriented and this force of reaching the goal which has been frustrated helps in determining public opinion. Abolition of zamindari system in many states of India, is a glaring example of how motive helps in the formation of public opinion. In India the lands were centralized with the zamindars and they were the sole authorities.
The poor landless persons only worked in their fields and got very nominal wages. Thus, a public opinion to abolish zamindari system started in the form of a revolution. The public opinion would not have been so strong and effective if all the people in the villages had sufficient lands in their occupation. It is, therefore, needless to say that in the formation of public opinion strong motives are involved.
If someone is not concerned for a particular problem or issue, he will not usually bother if it goes to hail. Behind any public opinion, the operation of strong human motives are always found. The chance of a particular problem becoming a public opinion lays on the existing demands, needs and instructions of people.
In the formation of public opinion, education and imitation have their respective roles to play. Because of difference in educational qualification of the rural and urban people, there is a great deal of difference in the public opinion of rural and urban people.
We can have glaring examples of this during the time of election either Grampanchayat or Assembly or Parliament. Sometimes a clear line of demarcation is seen in the public opinion of rural and urban people because of the influence of education. Some say that usually the public opinion of the rural people is dogmatic and systematized and it is more progressive in the urban area.
Education makes one rational and explorative. Curiosity, inquisitiveness etc. As urban people are, by and large, more educated than the rural people, they do not easily form a public opinion unless convinced themselves. For developing awareness and public opinion, in favour of various welfare works undertaken by the Govt.
No welfare programme can be successful unless it is accepted by people and for this acceptance formation of publication is imperative. In each and every state, therefore, there are Information and Public Relations Departments who mobilize public opinion in addition to other works. Religion and caste in India and Black and White feeling in South Africa are some of the examples of how religion and caste feeling play significant role in the determination of public opinion towards various issues.
Though India is often talked as a secular democratic republic because of the constitutional provisions in practice, caste influences our social life and religious considerations systematically influence our public opinion. Of course, due to increase in educational status of people and impact of civilisation and other nations, this feeling is gradually disintegrating. But these age long feelings are still deep rooted and can be uprooted through intercaste and interreligion marriages, and education. Newspapers and Magazines are the most popular medium used for the formation of public opinion.
Since it is not possible on the part of people of different parts of a state, country or nation to come in direct contact with each other, newspapers play a very strong role in the formation of public opinion.
Many people only by knowing various issues from the newspapers and how others are supporting them develop public opinion. The band wagon effect is well carried through newspapers. Views of Government and various leaders are transmitted to the mass through the newspapers which are well known as mass media. This is called yellow journalism. Such newspapers should be kept under close watch. But newspapers, nevertheless, give proper guidance to the public in formation of public opinion.
Radio is more effective than newspapers in influencing public opinion. Both Radio and TV function under Govt, control. So people usually consider it as reliable and valid.
Electronic medias, therefore, not only help in the formation of a large percentage of public opinion they also play effective role in changing public opinion. Many surveys are being conducted on public opinion sponsored by Radio and TV authorities to measure public opinion relating to various issues.
Several scientific studies of propaganda have also been made through Radio and TV to study its effect on public. Very recently just before Parliamentary Election in India opinion polls on various political parties getting votes were made. It was found that this had also tremendous impact on public opinion.